Heart Attack Types and Diseases

A heart attack occurs when oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart is blocked. It is caused by fat, cholesterol, and other substances that block plaques (plaque; a viscous congestion) in the arteries (coronary arteries) that carry blood to the heart. The heart does not get oxygen due to obstructed blood flow and if the heart does not get oxygen quickly, the heart muscles are destroyed

Worldwide, one person dies of a heart attacks every 33 seconds.

Heart Attack Types and Diseases 

Types of Heart Attack

There are 3 types of heart attacks :
  1.  ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI): Stemi (STEMI) causes pain in the middle of the chest. It does not cause intense pain but feels pressure and stiffness.
  2. Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI): Coronary arteries are partially blocked in Enstemi (NSTEMI). There is no change in the ST segment in the electrocardiogram from ENSTEMI (NSTEMI).
  3.  Unstable angina or coronary spasm: its symptoms are similar to STEMI but are mostly ignored as indigestion or muscle pain. When the arteries of the heart become constricted, the flow of blood to the heart stops or decreases. Diagnosis of unstable angina is indicated only by imaging or blood tests. Coronary spasm does not cause any dangerous impairment but it increases the risk of heart attacks again.

Symptoms of heart attack

Symptoms of a heart attack are :
  1. A feeling of pressure, tightness or pain on the chest or arms that can spread to your throat, jaw and back.
  2. Nausea, indigestion, heartburn, abdominal pain.
  3. Difficulty in breathing.
  4. Sweating due to fear, anxiety, or illness.
  5. Fatigue.
  6. Dizziness.
Heart attack

Heart attacks symptoms are not common to all people. Chest pain is always intense, but some people may also experience very little pain as indigestion. Some people, especially women, the elderly and those suffering from diabetes, do not feel pain.

Due to heart attack

A heart attacks occurs when one or more of your coronary artery is blocked. Coronary artery may be narrowed due to accumulation of cholesterol and many other substances. This condition is called Coronary Artery Disease and most heart attacks are due to this reason.
During a heart attacks, plaque (Plaque; a sticky congestion) may burst and, cholesterol and many other substances can spread to the bloodstream. A blood clot is formed where the plaque (Plaque; a sticky congestion) bursts. If this clot is large, it may cause blood flow to be completely blocked.
Another cause of heart attacks is spasm of the coronary artery, which blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Tobacco and illegal narcotics such as cocaine can cause fatal spasms. A heart attack can also occur due to rupture of the heart artery (spontaneous coronary artery dissection; Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection).

Heart attack prevention 

To reduce the risk of heart attack :
  1.  To reduce the risk of heart attacks and to improve the function of your damaged heart, use medicines advised by the doctor and keep taking advice from your doctor.
  2. Along with a healthy diet, maintain healthy weight, do not smoke, exercise daily, do not over stress and control problems like high BP, high blood cholesterol levels and diabetes.
  3. If you have diabetes, use the medicines recommended for it and keep checking your blood sugar level. If you have any heart disease, consult your doctor and use medicines advised by the doctor.

Diagnosis of heart attack

During a routine physical examination, your doctor will check for risk factors that may cause a heart attacks.
The following tests are done to check for a heart attacks :
  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): ECG (ECG) is first performed to diagnose heart attack. This test checks the electrical activities of the heart. Electrical activities of the damaged heart are not common, so the ECG shows whether a heart attacks has occurred before or is due in the future.
  2. Blood tests: When a heart attack occurs, many enzymes are spread in the blood. To know whether this enzyme is in the blood or not, your doctor can get your blood checked.

Treatment of heart attack

Treatment for heart attacks will depend on the type of heart attacks you have.
ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is the most severe type of heart attack and requires emergency treatment in order to reduce the harm caused by a heart attack.
If you are experiencing symptoms of a heart attacks and your electrocardiogram (ECG) results indicate that you have STEMI, treatment will be done to open your coronary arteries.

Some surgical procedures for the treatment of heart attack are as follows :
  1. Angioplasty : The blocked artery is opened using a balloon or by removing the blocking material.
  2. Stent insertion : After angioplasty, a type of tube (stent) is inserted into the blocked part to keep the artery open.
  3. Bypass surgery : surgery to supply blood flow to the blocked part of the heart.
  4. Heart valve surgery : surgery to replace the valve in which the leak is taking place.
  5. Pacemaker Surgery : The abnormal rhythm of the heart is controlled with the help of a pacemaker.
  6. Heart transplant : This is done in severe cases when the heart tissue is completely destroyed due to a heart attack.
Heart Attack Types and Diseases

Heart attack risks and complications 

The following people may have a heart attack easily:
  1.  Age : Men older than 45 and women older than 55 can get heart attacks easily.
  2. Tobacco : A heart attacks can be easily caused by smoking or being around people who smoke.
  3. Hypertension : High blood pressure damages the arteries. This risk also increases when high blood pressure is due to obesity, smoking, high cholesterol or sugar.
  4. High levels of cholesterol and triglyceride : High levels of LDL cholesterol cause arteries to constrict. High levels of triglyceride may increase the risk of heart attacks.
  5. Diabetes : When the body does not produce enough insulin, sugar levels in the body increase. Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of heart attacks.
  6. Family problem of heart attack : If people in your family (men before 55 or women before 65) have had a heart attack then you can easily get a heart attack.
  7. Lack of physical exercise : Lack of physical exercise increases cholesterol level and also leads to obesity which increases the risk of heart attack.
  8. Obesity : By reducing the weight of 10 percent of your body, you can reduce the risk of heart attacks.
  9. Stress : Stress can increase the risk of heart attacks.
  10. Use of narcotics : Substances that affect your nervous system or cocaine can cause cramps in your coronary arteries which may increase the risk of a heart attack.
  11. Family problem of Preeclampsia : Preeclampsia during pregnancy leads to high blood pressure which increases the risk of heart attack.
  12. Diseases in which the body's immune system damages healthy cells such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus increases the risk of heart attack.
Dieting in heart attack

Dietary instructions in heart attacks are similar to dieting in heart failure.
People suffering from heart attack should take the following diet :

1. Don't have sex for 2-3 weeks after a heart attacks.
2. Smoking is the major cause of heart attacks, so do not smoke.
3. Do not eat fried vegetables or meat.
4. Do not drink soft drinks or other drinks containing sugar.
5. Do not eat foods with excessive salt.
6. Do not eat white rice.
If you are suffering from any heart disease, then you will have to diet above.

What to eat in a heart attack

Diet in heart attacks should be taken in the same way as the diet in heart failure which are as follows: What to eat in heart failure?

People suffering from heart attacks should eat the following things :

1. Fresh vegetables (Example  broccoli, spinach etc.)
2. Citrus and fresh fruits (Example - oranges, pomegranates, grapes etc.)
3. Wheat Flour
4. Oatmeal
5. Olive oil, vegetable oil, canola oil
6. Fish
7. Berries, Strawberries, Blueberries etc.
8. Soybean products (such as soy milk or tofu)
9. Almonds, walnuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.
10. Green Tea
11. Coffee
The above diet is beneficial for the patient suffering from any heart disease.
Get a heart attack lab test done

Heart attack medicine 

There are many medicines available for heart attacks. All these medicines are given below. But be aware that you do not take any medicines without consulting your doctor. Taking medicines without doctor's advice can cause serious damage to your health.
Questions and answers related to heart attacks

What are the ways to avoid heart attack

No matter what age you are, the risk of heart attacks is at every age. This is the reason why heart attacks do not occur, so preparation should be done in advance. If you also want to avoid the possibility of heart attacks, then try these measures -
  1. Be physically active : If you do not have physical work, then do light exercise at least two and a half hours per day. It is not necessary to exercise under a trainer, you can also keep yourself active by walking every day.
  2. It is also necessary to have your medical checkup regularly after a certain age. If necessary, talk to the doctor in detail on your lifestyle, diet. This will let you know if you have any possibility of having a heart attack. After this, mold yourself according to their advice.
  3. Avoid smoking : Especially do not drink the cigarette or bidi used by others. This greatly increases the risk of heart attacks.
  4. If a close relative, siblings have suffered a heart attack, be aware of yourself.

What to do if you have a heart attack

If you or someone with you has had a heart attack, try these remedies immediately :
  1. Try to keep the patient calm despite a heart attacks.
  2. Sit him comfortably somewhere or ask him to lie down.
  3. If the medicine is not allergic to aspirin, ask them to chew it and eat it. In fact, chewing instead of taking aspirin through water has a quicker effect than eating.
  4. Despite this, if the patient's eyes are closed, he is not reacting, then do CPR ie cardio pulmonary resuscitation. However, this process can only be done by experts. In fact, under this procedure, the chest is pressed until the heartbeat of the patient becomes normal so that the blood with oxygen already present in the body is circulated. However, if you do not know how to do this, contact the doctor immediately.

How to recognise a heart attack  

If you have had a heart attack -
  1. Do you feel pain, pressure and cramps on the left side of your chest.You have pain in the upper body ie stomach, neck, jaw line and both hands (especially in the left hand).You have trouble breathing.
  2. Suddenly you start sweating.
  3. Feeling of vomiting and dizziness.
  4. Mild headache.
Some of these symptoms are observed when a mini heart attacks or minor stroke occurs.
  1. Weakness and numbness in hands, feet, mouth.
  2. Suddenly there is a problem in talking.
  3. Do not understand the words of others.
  4. Suddenly there is difficulty in seeing with both eyes or one eye.
  5. Severe headache occurs.